Sophie Kinsella Biography – life, family, children, parents, name, story, wife, school, mother – Newsmakers Cumulation

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Sophie Kinsella Biography. Author. Born in 1969, in England; married Henry (a teacher), c. 1990; children: Freddy, Hugo. … British author Sophie Kinsella is the pseudonymous creator of the immensely successful “Shopaholic” novels. The lighthearted tales center around one…

Sophie Nicholson-Cole’s research works | Department of Energy and Climate Change, UK, London (DECC) and other places

Sophie Nicholson-Cole’s 15 research works with 2,952 citations and 26,044 reads, including: The Tyndall coastal simulator.
HomeUniversity of East AngliaSchool of Environmental SciencesSophie DayAbout34, 742Reads How we measure ‘reads’A ‘read’ is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn morePublicationsThis article provides an overview of the approach taken by the Marine Knowledge Exchange Network (M-KEN) and an assessment of its activities in valorizing and generating impact from research. M-KEN was formed in 2014 in response to a call for projects to accelerate impact generated from environmental research in the United Kingdom (UK). M-KEN was u… This chapter examines the societal response to diverse environmental and social dynamics within deltas during the Anthropocene era and the challenges for future adaptation. It illustrates these dynamics through unique data on the diversity and success of the range of adaptive actions undertaken by contemporary populations as well as perceptions of… The Tyndall Coastal Simulator comprised a wide range of modelling activities across disciplines and institutions. This activity generated diverse results, described in the preceding chapters. Organising this body of knowledge into a coherent and accessible form for use by stakeholders and for additional ad hoc analyses emerged as a substantial task… Coastal planners and managers face a wide range of challenges around the world during the twenty-first century. These include geomorphological, climatic, and socio-economic drivers of change, their interaction and the societal and governance issues that they raised. The interplay between these challenges motivated the Tyndall Centre for Climate Res… The preceding chapters have laid out the range of challenges of coastal simulation to support future coastal management, with a particular focus on understanding erosion, flood and habitat changes and their links to coastal management. The detailed case study in Norfolk places the theory and generic principles in a real-world management context tha… Current planning for the future of coastal zones in England is occurring at a time of great change and uncertainty. Alongside the expectation of increased storminess and impending sea-level rise associated with climate change, coastal decision-making is subject to a whole host of institutional shifts and the legacy of past coastal management decisi… This article answers calls from scholars to attend to a research gap concerning the visual representation of climate change. We present results from three Q-methodology workshops held in Melbourne (Australia), Norwich (UK) and Boulder (USA) investigating engagement with climate change imagery drawn from mass media sources. Participants were provide… The threat of sea-level rise and climate change means that coastal managers are being increasingly asked to make long-term assessments of potential coastal impacts and responses. In the UK, shoreline management planning (for flood and erosion hazards) and spatial planning now takes a 100year perspective. An integrated framework across a wide range… This paper investigates whether and to what extent a wide range of actors in the UK are adapting to climate change, and whether this is evidence of a social transition. We document evidence of over 300 examples of early adopters of adaptation practice to climate change in the UK. These examples span a range of activities from small adjustments (or… Coastal zones attract settlements, are ideal for a range of economic activities and accommodate important natural habitats that provide ecosystem services. All these coastal activities are vulnerable to climate and other changes unless appropriate management policies are implemented. Sea-level rise and intensified storms could increase the incidenc… The soft coastline of eastern England is dynamic, with much of it subject to the risk of erosion or flooding. A number of internationally important coastal nature conservation sites are under threat. This paper explores the character and reasoning behind changing coastal management policies and governance practices in England. It reveals how Natura… Fear-inducing representations of climate change are widely employed in the public domain. However, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the impacts that fearful messages in climate change communications have on people’s senses of engagement with the issue and associated implications for public engagement strategies. Some literature su… The effect of global climate change on the wave climate of the coastal regions of the UK is investigated. A state of the art third generation wave model is used to predict changes in wave climate in the North East Atlantic and UK coastal waters. The driving meteorological data is provided by global and regional climate models, driven by different f… The most recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presents unequivocal evidence of climate change. Coastal areas are projected to be exposed to increased risks of coastal erosion and flooding due to greater storminess and sea level rise. One challenge is to work out how coasts may alter in terms of flood and erosion ris… The coastal simulator is designed to aid coastal management by providing information on possible future states through the 21st Century under a range of climate and socio-economic futures and shoreline management options. It links a series of models within a nested spatial framework that recognises three scales which provide boundary conditions t… This paper reports on the barriers that members of the UK public perceive to engaging with climate change. It draws upon three mixed-method studies, with an emphasis on the qualitative data which offer an in-depth insight into how people make sense of climate change. The paper defines engagement as an individual’s state, comprising three elements:… Shoreline Management Plans (SMPs) in the UK are currently at a key stage with most now being updated for the first time. These SMPs need to be technically robust, integrating flood risk and coastal erosion in the context of climate change, spatial planning, habitat protection and the need for stakeholder engagement. The Tyndall Centre for Climate C… Sophie DayHow people perceive their role and the responsibilities of others in determining the outcomes of climate change is of great importance for policy-making, adaptation and climate change mitigation. However, for many people, climate change is a remote problem and not one of personal concern. Meaningful visualisations depicting climate change futures co…

ArtStation – Sophie Nicholson

I am a student currently studying animation and game development…
HomeUniversity of East AngliaSchool of Environmental SciencesSophie DayAbout34, 742Reads How we measure ‘reads’A ‘read’ is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn morePublicationsThis article provides an overview of the approach taken by the Marine Knowledge Exchange Network (M-KEN) and an assessment of its activities in valorizing and generating impact from research. M-KEN was formed in 2014 in response to a call for projects to accelerate impact generated from environmental research in the United Kingdom (UK). M-KEN was u… This chapter examines the societal response to diverse environmental and social dynamics within deltas during the Anthropocene era and the challenges for future adaptation. It illustrates these dynamics through unique data on the diversity and success of the range of adaptive actions undertaken by contemporary populations as well as perceptions of… The Tyndall Coastal Simulator comprised a wide range of modelling activities across disciplines and institutions. This activity generated diverse results, described in the preceding chapters. Organising this body of knowledge into a coherent and accessible form for use by stakeholders and for additional ad hoc analyses emerged as a substantial task… Coastal planners and managers face a wide range of challenges around the world during the twenty-first century. These include geomorphological, climatic, and socio-economic drivers of change, their interaction and the societal and governance issues that they raised. The interplay between these challenges motivated the Tyndall Centre for Climate Res… The preceding chapters have laid out the range of challenges of coastal simulation to support future coastal management, with a particular focus on understanding erosion, flood and habitat changes and their links to coastal management. The detailed case study in Norfolk places the theory and generic principles in a real-world management context tha… Current planning for the future of coastal zones in England is occurring at a time of great change and uncertainty. Alongside the expectation of increased storminess and impending sea-level rise associated with climate change, coastal decision-making is subject to a whole host of institutional shifts and the legacy of past coastal management decisi… This article answers calls from scholars to attend to a research gap concerning the visual representation of climate change. We present results from three Q-methodology workshops held in Melbourne (Australia), Norwich (UK) and Boulder (USA) investigating engagement with climate change imagery drawn from mass media sources. Participants were provide… The threat of sea-level rise and climate change means that coastal managers are being increasingly asked to make long-term assessments of potential coastal impacts and responses. In the UK, shoreline management planning (for flood and erosion hazards) and spatial planning now takes a 100year perspective. An integrated framework across a wide range… This paper investigates whether and to what extent a wide range of actors in the UK are adapting to climate change, and whether this is evidence of a social transition. We document evidence of over 300 examples of early adopters of adaptation practice to climate change in the UK. These examples span a range of activities from small adjustments (or… Coastal zones attract settlements, are ideal for a range of economic activities and accommodate important natural habitats that provide ecosystem services. All these coastal activities are vulnerable to climate and other changes unless appropriate management policies are implemented. Sea-level rise and intensified storms could increase the incidenc… The soft coastline of eastern England is dynamic, with much of it subject to the risk of erosion or flooding. A number of internationally important coastal nature conservation sites are under threat. This paper explores the character and reasoning behind changing coastal management policies and governance practices in England. It reveals how Natura… Fear-inducing representations of climate change are widely employed in the public domain. However, there is a lack of clarity in the literature about the impacts that fearful messages in climate change communications have on people’s senses of engagement with the issue and associated implications for public engagement strategies. Some literature su… The effect of global climate change on the wave climate of the coastal regions of the UK is investigated. A state of the art third generation wave model is used to predict changes in wave climate in the North East Atlantic and UK coastal waters. The driving meteorological data is provided by global and regional climate models, driven by different f… The most recent report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) presents unequivocal evidence of climate change. Coastal areas are projected to be exposed to increased risks of coastal erosion and flooding due to greater storminess and sea level rise. One challenge is to work out how coasts may alter in terms of flood and erosion ris… The coastal simulator is designed to aid coastal management by providing information on possible future states through the 21st Century under a range of climate and socio-economic futures and shoreline management options. It links a series of models within a nested spatial framework that recognises three scales which provide boundary conditions t… This paper reports on the barriers that members of the UK public perceive to engaging with climate change. It draws upon three mixed-method studies, with an emphasis on the qualitative data which offer an in-depth insight into how people make sense of climate change. The paper defines engagement as an individual’s state, comprising three elements:… Shoreline Management Plans (SMPs) in the UK are currently at a key stage with most now being updated for the first time. These SMPs need to be technically robust, integrating flood risk and coastal erosion in the context of climate change, spatial planning, habitat protection and the need for stakeholder engagement. The Tyndall Centre for Climate C… Sophie DayHow people perceive their role and the responsibilities of others in determining the outcomes of climate change is of great importance for policy-making, adaptation and climate change mitigation. However, for many people, climate change is a remote problem and not one of personal concern. Meaningful visualisations depicting climate change futures co…

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Biography – NICHOLSON, FRANCIS – Volume II (1701-1740) – Dictionary of Canadian Biography

Nicholson’s parentage is uncertain; probably he was a son or close relative of Thomas Nicholson, successively governor of the … NICHOLSON, FRANCIS. Publication Name: Dictionary of Canadian Biography , vol. 2. Publisher: University of Toronto/Université Laval.
NICHOLSON, FRANCIS, soldier, conqueror and later governor of Nova Scotia, colonial administrator; b. 12 Nov. 1655 (o. s. ), at Downholme, Yorkshire; died a bachelor 5 March 1727/28 in London; buried in the parish of St George, Hanover Square. Nicholson’s parentage is uncertain; probably he was a son or close relative of Thomas Nicholson, successively governor of the Houses of Correction at Richmond and at Thirsk. He had a sister of whom nothing is known save her married name, Phipps. He was reared in the Anglican communion and in later life supported the work of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Nicholson’s formal education remains obscure. His correspondence indicates he received some elementary instruction in his boyhood, possibly at a free school in Richmond, near his birthplace. During his youth he became a page of Charles Paulet (Powlett), Lord St John of Basing (afterwards Marquis of Winchester), thereby gaining the patronage of that courtier and of his son-in-law, John Egerton, Earl of Bridgewater. On 16 Jan. 1677/78 he was gazetted ensign in the King’s Holland regiment, and served in Flanders till the regiment’s recall and disbandment toward the end of December. He rejoined the army 13 July 1680 as lieutenant in the Earl of Plymouth’s regiment, a unit created especially for reinforcing Tangier against attack by the Moorish emperor. At Tangier he was in due course selected for courier service. Upon Tangier’s evacuation in February 1683/84 he was ordered back to London, later rejoining his regiment in which he continued to serve as a subaltern till early in 1686. With James II’s creation of the Dominion of New England, Nicholson, now captain of a company of foot, sailed that fall for Boston as assistant to Sir Edmund Andros, the governor-in-chief. Less than two years thereafter he won appointment as lieutenant-governor, under Andros, at New York. In August 1687 he was sent by Andros to Port-Royal (Annapolis Royal, N. S. ) to seek the restoration of a New England fishing ketch captured off Acadian shores. He failed to recover the boat, but did manage to gain some knowledge of military and other affairs in Acadia. The Dominion’s collapse in April 1689, on reports of James’s deposition, set off an insurrection in Manhattan, causing Nicholson to hasten away in hope of mending his fortunes at Whitehall. Embroiled in war with France, William III responded readily to the urgings of Winchester (now Duke of Bolton) by commissioning Nicholson lieutenant-governor of Virginia on 14 November. For 15 years he served there as a royal administrator and persistently championed the defence of New York’s frontier against Canadian raids. He was recalled from this post in April 1705 after many charges of fiscal maladministration had been made against him by the colonists. Because of his colonial and military experience he became associated as a volunteer in 1709 with Samuel Vetch, whose scheme for Canada’s conquest by an inter-colonial land and sea invasion was ordered into effect by the Whig ministry on 1 March. Following their joint appearance in Manhattan, Nicholson accepted command of the Connecticut, New York, and Jersey contingents, while Vetch laboured at Boston to mobilize New England units destined for Canada via the St Lawrence with British naval support. By late July Nicholson had advanced up the Hudson and deployed his troops in stockaded forts from Stillwater (north of Albany, N. Y. ) to the foot of Lake Champlain, whence with Iroquois assistance he could threaten Montreal, thus diverting soldiery from Quebec’s defence. The governor of New France, Rigaud de Vaudreuil, apprehending this stratagem, dispatched a reconnoitering force southward under Claude de Ramezay, whose report after a skirmish off Scalping Point (Pointe-à-la-Chevelure, opposite Crown Point, N. ) confirmed Vaudreuil’s fears. However, all chance of success for the English vanished with the ministry’s cancellation of its original naval orders. Before these tidings arrived, Nicholson’s force had become so demoralized by fatigue, supply shortages, and disease that they abandoned their outposts and streamed homeward. Nicholson, after a conference at Rehoboth, Mass., sailed for Britain to press for another invasion attempt or an assault from New England on Port-Royal. The latter proposal, promising tangible returns at no great cost to the crown, won ministerial approval. Commissioned 18 March 1709/10 commander-in-chief of an expedition to recover Nova Scotia for the queen, Nicholson set forth in May with 500 marines in a flotilla under Commodore George Martin, consisting of frigates, transports, and a bomb-ketch. At Boston Nicholson’s force was augmented by provincial troops under Vetch, and by additional supplies and sail. On 18 September he embarked, and on reaching Nova Scotia’s north shore entered the basin leading to Port-Royal. Under cover of Martin’s guns Nicholson disembarked his infantry beyond range of the fort, beginning a siege which terminated 2 October (13 October, n. ), with Auger de Subercase surrendering in the face of overwhelming odds. The articles of capitulation gave the English control over the Port-Royal fort (now renamed Annapolis Royal) and over the inhabitants living within a three-mile radius of the fort. The latter were given the freedom to move to Placentia (Plaisance) or New France if they so desired. Those who remained were to take the oath of allegiance to Queen Anne. The state of the rest of Acadia was not spelled out, but in effect the English regarded the Acadians as their subjects and expected them to provide any necessary services. The military weakness of the Annapolis Royal garrison, however, rendered the English control of Acadia rather ineffectual. About a month after the fall of Port-Royal, Nicholson published a lengthy journal of the expedition in the Boston News-Letter. Returning to England in triumph that winter, he was promptly ordered back to North America with the rank of lieutenant-general by Secretary Henry St John, who persuaded Anne’s new Tory ministry that British military and naval power could subjugate Canada within the framework of Vetch’s original design. Delayed in the Channel by contrary winds, Nicholson put in to Nantasket on 8 July 1711, barely two weeks ahead of Admiral Walker’s squadron, whose projected advance up the St Lawrence with seven crack English regiments seemed to assure Quebec’s capture. Although Nicholson, with the middle colonies and Connecticut supplying the substance, again threatened to split Canada’s defensive system via Lake Champlain, he was forced to withdraw when Walker and the other officers abandoned the naval attack after the fleet ran aground on the Île-aux-Oeufs in the St Lawrence. Slightly over a year later, in October 1712, Nicholson was appointed royal commissioner to audit colonial accounts, named governor of Nova Scotia and Placentia, and authorized to dispose of equipment brought home in Walker’s store-ships. These assignments, the brain-child of Lord Treasurer Oxford, were hopelessly grandiloquent in scope and resulted in Nicholson’s undoing. His proceedings at Boston in auditing provincial accounts embroiled him with the ex-governor, Vetch, whom Nicholson had accused of maladministration, and with two supply agents of the Annapolis Royal garrison, John Borland and Thomas Steel. To enforce compliance Nicholson brought suit in court, but Vetch evaded this by taking off for Britain. The signing of the treaty of Utrecht in the spring of 1713, by which England was given Acadia “within its antient boundaries, ” had added greater stability to the English presence in Acadia. The uncertainty about the location of these “boundaries, ” however, was to cause difficulties later on. Nicholson was instructed by Queen Anne in June 1713 to see to it that those Acadians who wished to remain in their homes were protected, and that those who wished to leave the country could freely do so. No term was set for this latter concession. In this and most other matters, Nicholson relegated the administration of the province to his lieutenant-governor, Thomas Caulfeild. In fact, Nicholson spent only a few months in Nova Scotia while he was governor, from 11 Aug. to 18 Oct. 1714. In August, Nicholson was present when Jacques d’Espiet de Pensens and Louis Denys* de La Ronde came to seek permission to transport to Île Royale (Cape Breton Island) all Acadians who wanted to migrate to French territory. Nicholson let the emissaries speak to the inhabitants of several settlements and most showed a desire to go to Île Royale. When the agents requested a period of one year to effect the move Nicholson referred the question to London, saying that he did not know whether he could grant this request. Soon after George I’s accession Nicholson sailed home where the Whigs, now entrenched in office, conducted lengthy investigations of his conduct in response to complaints from many of his recent subordinates at Annapolis Royal, including Caulfeild. The general tenor of these charges was that Nicholson had neglected to see to the needs of the Annapolis Royal garrison. No doubt Nicholson’s Tory sympathies weighed against his cause as well. Nicholson was dismissed and Vetch was appointed to succeed him. In 1720, Nicholson received his last colonial appointment as governor of South Carolina and remained in that post until 1725 when he returned to England to stay. Nicholson alienated many contemporaries by his vehement temper and a show of vindictiveness which critics readily exaggerated. Robert Hunter complained of his vanity, Vetch (once his admiring collaborator) termed him an illiterate madman, while Robert Beverly in Virginia ridiculed his pretensions as a town-planner. By contrast, his field-officers, fellow-governors (such as Gurdon Saltonstall of Connecticut), and most Anglican clergymen extolled his generosity, consideration, and bravery. Modern scholarship has yet to produce a satisfactory treatment of his career. His personal appearance is unknown, but there is ample evidence that he was a man of robust physique endowed with unique stamina and energy. BM, Add. MS 26626; Sloane MS 3603, ff. 14b, 20b, 39a. Mass., Archives, Council records, V, 54–55, 59–87, 88, 111–13, 116–17, 187, 257–59, 268, 272–73, 276–77, 279, 395–96, 401–3, 423–24; VI, 101–4, 117, 139–40, 143–50, 152–55, 161–65, 169–73, 175–76, 180–88, 193–99, 207–10, 213–16, 230–32, 259, 268, 270–71, 278–79, 285. “Mass. Archives, ” II, 164, 446–48a, 449, 452; LI, 217–24a; LXXI, 500, 502, 543, 561, 862; CVIII, 74. Mass. Hist. Soc., Parkman papers. Museum of the City of New York, Letter Book of Samuel Vetch, ff. 1–17, 44, 60–63, 67–71, 75, 77–82. N. B. Museum, Vetch papers, Webster Coll., shelf 40, pkt. 63. State, Archives, Col. mss, LIII, 60, 67, 69–70, 71b, 74b, 74d, 75a, 80b, 101, 103a, 142; LV, 8, 24, 37–38, 42, 49, 60–61, 63, 65, 67, 73, 83, 93, 95, 101, 103a, 107b, 111, 117, 141, 167, 174, 182–83; LVI, 13, 17, 32, 46, 54, 58, 78, 87, 89–90, 92, 94b, 108–9, 112, 113b, 155b. PAC, Nova Scotia A, 4, pp. 35–36, 57–60, 71–72, 76–79, 85, 96, 116–17, 130–34, 145–57, 197–99, 200, 205–12, 231–35, 238–45, 252–53; 5, pp. 10, 15, 128, 133–35, 187 (calendared in PAC Report, 1894); 8, pp. 6–7, 99–100, 109–10. PANS, MS docs., V, no. 10, ff. 18–20; no. 11, ff. 21–22; VI, nos. 10–11, 13, 27; VII, nos. 1–10; VII½, nos. 4, 23; VIII no. 69, ff. 126–28; IX, no. 1. PRO, Adm. 1/4317; 2/435, ff. 268–69; 2/438, ff. 28–30, 50, 57, 104, 156, 161, 211–12, 239, 274, 308, 310–11, 323, 346, 350, 366, 382, 438, 472, 518; 51/269, pt. 1; 52/211, f. 4; 52/124, f. 7; C. O. 5/1357, f. 302; 323/24, f. 11; S. P. 44/175, f. 269; 44/213; T. 1/139; 1/147, nos. 33, 65, 65(a); 1/151, nos. 15B, 17, 31, 48; 1/152; 1/154, no. 11; 1/159; 1/167; 1/177; 1/207 (report on papers relating to Port-Royal garrison submitted to council, 22 June 1717); T. 48/15, f. 3; 48/16, f. 3 (royal bounty to Nicholson, 3 Feb. 1711, for Port-Royal expedition); W. 26/14, ff. 44–48, 75 (instructions from Secretary Wyndham concerning Placentia and Port-Royal garrisons); 30/89, ff. 275–76, 277–79, 286–87. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library (Hyde Park, N. ), Livingston-Redmond Coll., Robert Livingston Papers (1714–15), 1 A, box 8. Somerset House, P. C. C., Brooke, f. 91 (will of Francis Nicholson, March 1728). Suffolk County Court House (Boston, Mass. ), Court files, Suffolk, LXXXIII, f. 8387; XCIII, f. 9575; XCIV, f. 9734; XCVIII, f. 10310. Boston News-letter, 30 Oct. –6 Nov. 1710. [Thomas (John) Buckingham], “A diary of the grand expedition against Crown Point in the year 1711, ” Roll and Journal of Connecticut service in Queen Anne’s War, 1710–11 (Acorn Club of Connecticut pub., XIII, Hartford, Conn., 1916), 31–43. Josiah Burchett, A complete history of the most remarkable transactions at sea, from the earliest accounts of time to the conclusion of the last war with France (London, 1720), 765–67. Calendar of council minutes, 1668–1763 (N. State Lib., Bull. LVIII, Hist. VI, Albany, 1902), 228, 230, 243–44. “Correspondance de Vaudreuil, ” APQ Rapport, 1942–43, 441–42; 1946–47, 413–14; 1947–48, 155, 167, 252–53, 262, 268, 284. Documentary hist. of New York (O’Callaghan), III, 675–76, 706–7. “Documents relating to the administration of Jacob Leisler, ” N. Soc. Coll., [3d ser. ], I (1868), 241–89. Journal of the legislative council of the colony of New York 1691–1775, Intro. E. B. O’Callaghan (2v., Albany, 1861), I, 278–80, 312, 326. “Journal of the Rev. John Sharpe, ” The Pennsylvania Mag. of Hist. and Biog. (Philadelphia), XL (1916), 276–80. London Gazette, 9–11, 13–16, 20–23 May 1710; 29–31 March, 14–17 April 1711. Memorials of the English and French commissaries, I, 33, 451, 481, 771; see also, Mémoires des commissaires, I, xxviii; II, 642; IV, 318, 322–32, 413, 415–32. NYCD (O’Callaghan and Fernow), V, 72–74, 81, 262–63, 265, 279–81, 462–63, 469–70, 509, 642; IX, 857–58, 859. State, Secretary of State, Calendar of historical manuscripts, ed. E. B. O’Callaghan (2v., Albany, 1865–66), II. Archives, II, 1–16, 20–31, 38–39. Coll., I (1878), 59–104. PRO, Acts of P. C., col. ser., 1720–45; B. T. Journal, 1708/9–1714/15, 1714/15–1718; CSP, Col., 1685–88, 1689–92, 1708–9, 1710–11, 1712–14, 1714–15; C. Books, 1716, XXX, pt. 2; C. Papers, 1708–1714, 1714–1719. Walker expedition (Graham). DAB. DNB. Dalton, English army lists, I, 169, 221, 323; II, 27, 82, 83; VI, 20, 283–92. R. P. Bond, Queen Anne’s American kings (Oxford, 1952), I, 46–47, 52, 122, 123–24. Brebner, New England’s outpost. Dalton, George the First’s army, II, 55–62. Murdoch, History of Nova-Scotia, I. Waller, Samuel Vetch; see also his article, “Samuel Vetch and the glorious enterprize, ” N. Q., XXXIV (1950) 101–23. B. T. McCully, “Catastrophe in the wilderness: new light on the Canada expedition of 1709, ” William and Mary Q. (Williamsburg, Va. ), 3d ser., XI (1954), 441–46; “From the north riding to Morocco: the early years of Governor Francis Nicholson, 1655–1685, ” William and Mary Q., 3d ser., XIX (1962), 534–56; “The New England-Acadia fishery dispute and the Nicholson mission of August, 1687, ” Essex Institute, Salem, Mass., Hist. Coll., XCVI (1960). For detailed contemporary maps of the Hudson-Champlain corridor see especially the N. Y. Hist. collection, which contains a remarkable sketch of the region from Albany to Crown Point around 1757, measuring 61 by 16 inches; in addition, see A. B. Hulbert, The Crown collection of photographs of American maps (5v., Cleveland, 1904–8), I, 15, which reproduces a map “to show the way from Albany to Canada…, ” drawn about 1720. Captain John Redknap’s plan of Annapolis Royal, executed after the siege in October 1710, may be found in PRO, M. G. 274. Bruce T. McCully, “NICHOLSON, FRANCIS, ” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 2, University of Toronto/Université Laval, 2003–, accessed May 9, 2022, http://www. biographi. ca/en/bio/nicholson_francis_2E. html. The citation above shows the format for footnotes and endnotes according to the Chicago manual of style (16th edition). Information to be used in other citation formats:

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